At around 6:40 a.m. last Sunday, a plane swept over a swath of Dorchester County, South Carolina, dispensing very fine droplets of a mosquito pesticide called Trumpet. With four cases of travel-associated Zika in the county, the area’s mosquito control department wasn’t taking any chances. But that pesticide-dispensing plane happened to fly over uncovered hives of honey bees, and now those bees more than two million of them are dead.

And the beekeepers? They’re not happy. Some of them lost a significant chunk of their livelihoods, and have set up a petition to stop further mosquito spraying in the county. But pesticides including Naled, the main component of Trumpet are a big part of the fairly limited arsenal against Zika. As the number of Zika cases has ramped up in the past few months, hard-hit areas like Miami-Dade county have been spraying several times a week on the CDC’s recommendation. So simply halting the spraying might not be the best idea.

First, the cons. There are a few reasons (other than massacred bees) that spraying might not be the best eradication method. The main carrier of Zika, the mosquito called Aedes aegypti, likes to spend time indoors, under beds, and in closets. From 300 feet in the air, the pesticide can’t always waft its way inside to do its job, says Chris Lesser, the assistant director of Florida’s Manatee County mosquito control group. His team has spent the past six years studying the best ways to kill off Aedes aegypti. While they can kill off more than 90 percent of the mosquitoes outside, the pesticide simply doesn’t drift into houses or even open-air structures like barns.

But Aedes aegypti spends a lot of time outside, too, Lesser says. And aerial spraying is still one of the quickest ways to kill whole outdoor droves of mosquitoes. “When disease transmission is going on, you need to kill adult mosquitoes and kill them now—and aerial spray is the best way to do it efficiently,” says Joe Conlon, an entomologist at the American Mosquito Control Association. When it comes to mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, blanketing an area with bug-killer is an important weapon.

It’s easier than killing larvae on the ground, a laborious process that involves going out and finding standing water to administer larvicide. And Naled selectively kills older mosquitoes (because they’re the ones flying around), which also happen to be the ones more likely to carry Zika. Better spraying tech has made the pesticide droplets small and light enough that they can reach mosquitoes even if they’re resting under a car or some shrubs or the eaves of a house. And those teeny droplets don’t affect humans the amount of pesticide floating around is what you’d get if you dispersed a shot glass’s worth over an area the size of a football field.

So a light misting of pesticide is a quick-and-dirty way to kill mosquitoes fast. But scientists still think the technique can be improved on—after all, the chemical’s been used for more