She was suffering multiple trauma injuries, including extensive facial injuries, limb injuries and a possible spinal injury.
The woman is from Brisbane and was climbing with friends on the standard trekking routes just before she fell.
She was winched off Mount Tibrogargan, one of the Glass House Mountains in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, about 12.30pm.
A doctor on-board the helicopter and paramedics had been winched down to initially treat the woman, before she was transported to hospital.
A Queensland Police spokesperson said the 18-year-old had just started climbing the main track when she fell. Emergency services received the call to attend the scene about 10.15am while the rescue helicopter was dispatched about 10.40am.