When Widad Houmaid, 20, earned good marks in high school, she decided to enrol in a biology class at Hassan II University in Casablanca.
There was only one problem; Moroccan university professors teach science in French. Houmaid, a graduate of Moroccan public schools where maths and science are taught in Arabic, does not speak French.
She is now struggling in her biology class. “You have to speak French to get the professors’ respect, and to get their attention,” she said.
Moroccan science professors, she added, are failing their Arabic-speaking students. For help, Houmaid relies on YouTube videos like this one in which a science course on thermodynamics is taught in Arabic.
Despite the switch at school level, Arabic did not become the teaching language at universities, particularly for maths or science. This was mainly due to a shortage of qualified teachers who spoke Arabic.
The switch was not without hurdles. According to Mohamed Melouk, a professor of research methodology and curriculum development at Mohammed V University in Rabat, the abrupt switch from French to Arabic caused problems for pupils.
“Students can work with any mathematical formulas, they can break down any computers or computer programme. But in terms of communication, the mastery of language, they are still poor,” said Melouk. “If you give them the means, the instruments to communicate, they would go further.”
Last December, Rachid Belmokhtar, the national education minister, made a controversial proposal to a go back to French for the teaching of maths, science, and physics studies in secondary schools.
The move was vetoed by Prime Minister Abdelilah Benkirane, whose moderate Islamist political party strongly supports continuing teaching in Arabic.
However, Belmokhtar’s proposal, which got the backing of the Moroccan King Mohammed VI, was approved in February by a council of ministers. Accordingly, the switch back to French for maths and science will be implemented over the next 15 years.
Complicating matters even further is a new government plan to give English a larger place in education. English will now be introduced starting in the fourth grade.
“I think it would be better if the whole system was in English for scientific studies,” said Oumayma El-Jahsani, an engineering student at CPGE Moulay Youssef, a school in Rabat. “Because even after you study in French, when you do research, sometimes you find books only in English.”
According to Ben Saga, the director of the information and orientation division of the higher education ministry, the priority now is to have English language in higher level education, especially for PhDs and master’s students. “It is very important for us to have this for scientific research, since the majority of it is in English,” he told Al Jazeera. “Our PhD students find it difficult to have direct access to scientific research in the world if we only have Arabic or French. So for us, it is very important to have this.”
Many Moroccan students say they like the new English language requirement, as they view fluency in the English language as an advantage, not only in school but also in the job market.
“English will be helpful for all because it’s easy and we can work with it,” said Nassim El Garni, a third-year mathematics and computer science student at Mohammed V university
Others aren’t so sure, seeing it as merely the continuation of the problems that have arisen with making French so necessary.
“Is it possible for a country to develop if it speaks the language of another country or if it not capable of speaking its own language?” asks Hamza Alioua, spokesman for the UECSE and a second-year student at the Hassan II University.